# PHYSICS PROJECT REPORT ON PRISM WITH LIGHT RAY/LAWS OF REFLECTION

In optics, a **prism** is a transparent optical element with flat, polished surfaces that refract light. At least two of the flat surfaces must have an angle between them. The exact angles between the surfaces depend on the application. The traditional geometrical shape is that of a triangular prism with a triangular base and rectangular sides, and in colloquial use “prism” usually refers to this type. Some types of optical prism are not in fact in the shape of geometric prisms. Prisms can be made from any material that is transparent to the wavelengths for which they are designed. Typical materials include glass, plastic, and fluorite.

A dispersive prism can be used to break light up into its constituent spectral colors (the colors of the rainbow). Furthermore, prisms can be used to reflect light, or to split light into components with different polarizations.

## Contents

## How prisms work

Light changes speed as it moves from one medium to another (for example, from air into the glass of the prism). This speed change causes the light to be refracted and to enter the new medium at a different angle (Huygens principle). The degree of bending of the light’s path depends on the angle that the incident beam of light makes with the surface, and on the ratio between the refractive indices of the two media (Snell’s law). The refractive index of many materials (such as glass) varies with the wavelength or color of the light used, a phenomenon known as *dispersion*. This causes light of different colors to be refracted differently and to leave the prism at different angles, creating an effect similar to a rainbow. This can be used to separate a beam of white light into its constituent spectrum of colors. A similar separation happens with iridescent materials, such as a soap bubble. Prisms will generally disperse light over a much larger frequency bandwidth than diffraction gratings, making them useful for broad-spectrum spectroscopy. Furthermore, prisms do not suffer from complications arising from overlapping spectral orders, which all gratings have.

Prisms are sometimes used for the internal reflection at the surfaces rather than for dispersion. If light inside the prism hits one of the surfaces at a sufficiently steep angle, total internal reflection occurs and *all* of the light is reflected. This makes a prism a useful substitute for a mirror in some situations.

### Deviation angle and dispersion

Ray angle deviation and dispersion through a prism can be determined by tracing a sample ray through the element and using Snell’s law at each interface. For the prism shown at right, the indicated angles are given by

- {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}\theta ‘_{0}&=\,{\text{arcsin}}{\Big (}{\frac {n_{0}}{n_{1}}}\,\sin \theta _{0}{\Big )}\\\theta _{1}&=\alpha -\theta ‘_{0}\\\theta ‘_{1}&=\,{\text{arcsin}}{\Big (}{\frac {n_{1}}{n_{2}}}\,\sin \theta _{1}{\Big )}\\\theta _{2}&=\theta ‘_{1}-\alpha \end{aligned}}}.

All angles are positive in the direction shown in the image. For a prism in air {\displaystyle n_{0}=n_{2}\simeq 1}. Defining {\displaystyle n=n_{1}}, the deviation angle {\displaystyle \delta } is given by

- {\displaystyle \delta =\theta _{0}+\theta _{2}=\theta _{0}+{\text{arcsin}}{\Big (}n\,\sin {\Big [}\alpha -{\text{arcsin}}{\Big (}{\frac {1}{n}}\,\sin \theta _{0}{\Big )}{\Big ]}{\Big )}-\alpha }

If the angle of incidence {\displaystyle \theta _{0}} and prism apex angle {\displaystyle \alpha } are both small, {\displaystyle \sin \theta \approx \theta } and {\displaystyle {\text{arcsin}}x\approx x} if the angles are expressed in radians. This allows the nonlinear equation in the deviation angle {\displaystyle \delta } to be approximated by

- {\displaystyle \delta \approx \theta _{0}-\alpha +{\Big (}n\,{\Big [}{\Big (}\alpha -{\frac {1}{n}}\,\theta _{0}{\Big )}{\Big ]}{\Big )}=\theta _{0}-\alpha +n\alpha -\theta _{0}=(n-1)\alpha \ .}

The deviation angle depends on wavelength through *n*, so for a thin prism the deviation angle varies with wavelength according to

- {\displaystyle \delta (\lambda )\approx [n(\lambda )-1]\alpha }.

## History

Before Isaac Newton, it was believed that white light was colorless^{[citation needed]}, and that the prism itself produced the color. Newton’s experiments demonstrated that all the colors already existed in the light in a heterogeneous fashion, and that “corpuscles” (particles) of light were fanned out because particles with different colors traveled with different speeds through the prism. It was only later that Young and Fresnel combined Newton’s particle theory with Huygens’ wave theory to show that color is the visible manifestation of light’s wavelength.

Newton arrived at his conclusion by passing the red color from one prism through a second prism and found the color unchanged. From this, he concluded that the colors must already be present in the incoming light — thus, the prism did not create colors, but merely separated colors that are already there. He also used a lens and a second prism to recompose the spectrum back into white light. This experiment has become a classic example of the methodology introduced during the scientific revolution. The results of this experiment dramatically transformed the field of metaphysics, leading to John Locke‘s primary vs secondary quality distinction.^{[citation needed]}

Newton discussed prism dispersion in great detail in his book *Opticks*.He also introduced the use of more than one prism to control dispersion.Newton’s description of his experiments on prism dispersion was qualitative, and is quite readable. A quantitative description of multiple-prism dispersion was not needed until multiple prism laser beam expanders were introduced in the 1980s^{}

## Types of prisms

### Dispersive prisms

*Dispersive prisms* are used to break up light into its constituent spectral colors because the refractive index depends on frequency; the white light entering the prism is a mixture of different frequencies, each of which gets bent slightly differently. Blue light is slowed down more than red light and will therefore be bent more than red light.

- Triangular prism
- Abbe prism
- Pellin–Broca prism
- Amici prism
- Compound prism
- Grism, a dispersive prism with a diffraction grating on its surface

### Reflective prisms

*Reflective prisms* are used to reflect light, in order to flip, invert, rotate, deviate or displace the light beam. They are typically used to erect the image in binoculars or single-lens reflex cameras – without the prisms the image would be upside down for the user. Many reflective prisms use total internal reflection to achieve high reflectivity.

The most common reflective prisms are:

- Porro prism
- Porro–Abbe prism
- Amici roof prism
- Pentaprism and roof pentaprism
- Abbe–Koenig prism
- Schmidt–Pechan prism
- Bauernfeind prism
- Dove prism
- Retroreflector prism

#### Beam-splitting prisms

Some reflective prisms are used for splitting a beam into two or more beams:

### Polarizing prisms

There are also *polarizing prisms* which can split a beam of light into components of varying polarization. These are typically made of a birefringent crystalline material.

- Nicol prism
- Wollaston prism
- Nomarski prism – a variant of the Wollaston prism with advantages in microscopy
- Rochon prism
- Sénarmont prism
- Glan–Foucault prism
- Glan–Taylor prism
- Glan–Thompson prism

### Deflecting prisms

Wedge prisms are used to deflect a beam of light by a fixed angle. A pair of such prisms can be used for beam steering; by rotating the prisms the beam can be deflected into any desired angle within a conical “field of regard”. The most commonly found implementation is a Risley prism pair. Two wedge prisms can also be used as an *anamorphic pair* to change the shape of a beam. This is used to make a round beam from the elliptical output of a laser diode.

Rhomboid prisms are used to laterally displace a beam of light without inverting the image.

Deck prisms were used on sailing ships to bring daylight below deck, since candles and kerosene lamps are a fire hazard on wooden ships.

## In optometry

By shifting corrective lenses off axis, images seen through them can be displaced in the same way that a prism displaces images. Eye care professionals use prisms, as well as lenses off axis, to treat various orthoptics problems:

- Diplopia (double vision)
- Positive and negative fusion problems
^{[ambiguous]} - Positive relative accommodation and negative relative accommodation problems.
^{[citation needed]}

Prism spectacles with a single prism perform a relative displacement of the two eyes, thereby correcting eso-, exo, hyper- or hypotropia.

In contrast, spectacles with prisms of equal power for both eyes, called **yoked prisms** (also: *conjugate prisms*, *ambient lenses* or *performance glasses*) shift the visual field of both eyes to the same extent^{}

# LOOKING FOR A WORKING MODEL FOR SCHOOL OR COLLEGE?

12th class is a no risk class. It is the class which decide your future. Whether you are going to work in MNC or going to work with usual private firms, it all depends here. To ensure the good marks to students we always stands behind them with all practical and theoretical support on Physics investigatory project. These Physics investigatory projects are usually have to be made by all students with physics and to be shown in boards practical. We at Gurukul Technicals Institute provide every student the theory behind the projects and give all possible required material to make the project work successfully. We duly provide equipped lab with latest lab materials. Conductors and Semiconductors are provided with Circuit diagram so that student can make project easily. Students make projects such as Full wave rectifier, Half wave rectifier, Fire alarm, rain alarm, Electromagnetic Induction, Logic gates(AND gate, OR gate, NOT gate, XAND gate, XNOR gate), Transistor as switch, Transistor as amplifier, Charging and Discharging of Capacitors, Series and Parallel Resistance etc etc. Students also get help on making these above given projects to made on cardboard or on breadboard as instructed by teacher. Students are also welcome to take help on report on given physics investigatory projects. After reading this website you can also send this information to your friend or relative studying in 12th class so it will make useful to him/her.

**Get Readymade Project anywhere in India on just a Click away! That too with Report!**

**Prompt Delivery! COD Available! All over India Delivery! Order Now!!**

**CLICK HERE TO VIEW ALL 12th CLASS INVESTIGATORY PROJECT WITH REPORT LISTED ON AMAZON.IN WEBSITE**

**CLICK HERE TO VIEW MINOR,MAJOR AND ALL OTHER INVESTIGATORY PROJECTS ON FLIPKART.COM WEBSITE**

**Physics Projects with Reports:**

- TO CONSTRUCT A CIRCUIT FOR TOUCH ALARM.
- EDDY CURRENT {WITHOUT MODEL }
- PHOTOCONDUCTIVE CELL
- MUTUAL INDUCTION
- TO STUDY NPN-TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER
- TO CONSTRUCT A ELECTRIC MOTORS (D.C.MOTOR)
- TO STUDY HOW A TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER WORK ‘PNP’ AMPLIFIER TRANSISTOR.
- HOUSEHOLD CIRCUITS
- AC TO DC CONVERTER (FULL WAVE RECTIFIER)
- AC TO DC CONVERTER (HALF WAVE RECTIFIER)
- TO CONSTRUCT A CIRCUIT OF FENCE WIRE BURGLAR ALARM
- TO SHOW THE PRINCIPLE OF FARADAY’S AND A.C. GENERATOR.
- THERMOCOUPLE
- TO STUDY FARADAY’S LAWS-TO FIND THE CHARGE ON AN ELECTRON
- FARADAY’S LAW’S OF ELECTROLYSIS
- TO STUDY A POSITIVE FEED BACK CIRCUIT OF AN AUDIO OSCILLATOR (LC OSCILLATOR)
- HOW DOES AN ELECTRIC GENERATOR WORK
- TO SHOW THAT A SOLENOID CARRYING AN ELECTRIC CURRENT PRODUCES A MAGNETIC FIELD SIMILAR TO THAT PRODUCED BY A BAR MAGNET.
- ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL (PRIMARY CELL)
- BOOLAN LOGIC GATE
- TO STUDY THE CHARGE AND DISCHARGING OF CAPACITOR IN SERIES
- WORKING OF POTENTIOMETER
- KIRCHOFF’S LAW
- TO DEMONSTRATE THE WORKING OF AN ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR BY MEANS OF ITS CHARGING AND DISCHARGING WITH THE HELP OF AN AUDIO OSCILLATOR AND TO STUDY AND COMPARE THE TWO CAPACITORS UNDER SERIES AND PARALLEL COMBINATION.(Z)
- RADIOACTIVITY AND NUCLEAR REACTIONS.
- RADIOISOTOPE THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR.
- TO CONSTRUCT A CIRCUIT OF SOUND OPERATED SWITCH.
- TO CONSTRUCT A CIRCUIT OF TIME OPERATED SWITCH.
- TO CONSTRUCT A CIRCUIT OF SOUND AMPLIFIER.
- TO CONSTRUCT A CIRCUIT OF A FIRE ALARM.
- TO CONSTRUCT A CIRCUIT OF CLAP SWITCH.
- TO CONSTRUCT A CIRCUIT OF TRANSISTOR SWITCH
- TO FIND OUT OPTICAL ACTIVITY ARISES WHEN THE POLARIZATION AXIS OF LIGHT IS ROTATED AS IT PASSES THROUGH A SUBSTANCE
- PUSH-PULL AMPLIFIER
- HARTLEY OSCILLATORS
- PUSH PULL AMPLIFIER
- REPORT ON MAGNETIC FIELDS, MAGNETIC FORCES, AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION LAWS OF REFRACTION (Z).
- RAY OPTICS-TO FIND REFRACTIVE INDEX OF THE MATERIAL OF THE PRISM BY TOTAL INTERNAL REFRACTION (Z).
- TO DEMONSTRATE THE WORKING OF AN ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR BY MEANS OF ITS CHARGING AND DISCHARGING WITH THE HELP OF AN AUDIO OSCILLATOR AND TO STUDY AND COMPARE THE TWO CAPACITORS UNDER SERIES AND PARALLEL COMBINATIONS.
- TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF THE DIAMETER AND THE NUMBER OF TURNS OF THE SPRING ON ITS STRENGTH HAS BEEN INVESTIGATION IN THIS STUDY.(Z)
- TO FIND OUT THE THERMAL COEFFICIENT OF RESISTANCE FOR A DIVAN SET OF WIRES AND THUS SUGGEST THE WIRE IN WHICH ENERGY LOSS DUE TO HEAT GENERATION IS MINIMUN.(Z)
- TO SEE THAT WATER CONDUCTS ELECTRICITY BETTER WHEN IMPURITIES ARE ADDED IT. (Z)
- TO MAKE NOR GATE WITH THE COMBINATION OF TWO GATES. (Z)
- PASCAL’S LAW AND ITS APPLICATIONS
- BRIDGE RECTIFIER- A CIRCUIT USING FOUR DIODES TO PROVIDE FULL WAVE RECTIFICATION.CONVERTS AN AC VOLTAGE TO A PULSATING DC VOLTAGE.
- TO CONSTRUCT A CIRCUIT OF QUIZ BUZZER.
- TO CONSTRUCT A CIRCUIT OF LASER SECURITY SYSTEM.
- TO CONSTRUCT A CIRCUIT OF RAIN ALARM.
- TO CONSTRUCT A CIRCUIT OF WATER LEVEL INDICATOR.
- THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON DISPOSABLE AND NON DISPOSABLE BATTERIES
- TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECT OF THE FOLLOWING FACTORS ON THE INTERNAL RESISTANCE OF A LACLANCHE CELL.
- TO CONSTRUCT A CIRCUIT OF OPTICAL SWITCHING.
- TO CONSTRUCT A CIRCUIT OFCAPACITOR CHARGE OSCILATOR
- TO CONSTRUCT A CIRCUIT OFCAPACITOR STORAGE LED
- TO CONSTRUCT A CIRCUIT OF TWO TRANSISTOR OSCILLATOR
- EXPERIMENTS IN ELECTROCHEMISTRY
- TO SHOW THE UNIDIRECTION ACTION OF DIODE
- OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION
- TO CONSTRUCT A CIRCUIT OF ELECTRONIC EYE

**NOT IN THE LIST? WHATSAPP ON 9711699511 SO WE CAN SPECIALLY MADE IT FOR YOU. EITHER ON MULTIPURPOSE PCB OR BREAD BOARD.**